Physicians

Research Reviews

Review the list of Research Reviews courses offered. Click on any course title to reveal the course description, information about registering, and course details.

CL 3065 Defending Chiropractic: 9 Course Series (9 CE Hours, $200)

CE Hours - 9

Price - $200

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

The Defending Chiropractic series of online continuing education courses describes and explains to non-researchers the development of research on spinal manipulation and chiropractic care from the 1970s to the present, focusing on summaries of individual clinical trials, systematic reviews, practice guidelines and other expert sources. This is essential information that chiropractic practitioners can combine with their personal experiences in patient care to make the most convincing evidence-based case for the health benefits of chiropractic in conversations with current and potential patients, members of other health professions, community leaders, and government policy makers.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. identify the key conclusions in the course content
  2. explain the concepts covered in the course content
  3. compare and contrast findings in the course content

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

Series Course Topics

  • Course 1: Using Research to Defend and Promote Chiropractic
  • Course 2: Early Studies Whose Effects Still Resonate
  • Course 3: Debunking Myths and Comparing Results
  • Course 4: Manual Methods Compared to Exercise, Medical Care and Physiotherapy
  • Course 5: Preventing and Managing Chronic Low Back Pain
  • Course 6: Applying Low Back Pain Guidelines
  • Course 7: Spinal Manipulation for Sciatica
  • Course 8: Cost-Effectiveness of Spinal Manipulation for Low Back Pain
  • Course 9: Cost-Effectiveness of Chiropractic Care for Low Back Pain II

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CL 3066 Defending Chiropractic 1: Using Research To Defend and Promote Chiropractic (1 CE Hour, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

This course describes the dawn of the modern era of chiropractic research in the 1970s, beginning with the National Institutes of Health Conference on the Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy and the founding of Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, the profession’s flagship research journal and the first to be included in National Library of Medicine databases such as Medline and PubMed. The role of research in formulating practice guidelines is explained, and discussion of current low back pain guidelines of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters and those jointly prepared by the American College of Physicians and American Pain Society bring the story up to the present day.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Explain the significance of the NIH conference on spinal manipulation research.
  2. Identify and describe the key elements of the low back pain guidelines of the American College of Physicians and American Pain Society.
  3. Identify and explain the key elements of the low back pain guidelines of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

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CL 3067 Defending Chiropractic 2: Early Breakthrough Research on Chiropractic (1 CE Hour, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

This course describes four well-designed and highly influential studies that laid the foundation for the extensive body of chiropractic-related research now relied on by chiropractors and others seeking to understand beneficial outcomes from spinal manipulation. The Canadian study by Cassidy and Kirkaldy-Willis, the first to be co-authored by a DC and an MD, demonstrated that patients long disabled by back pain and who had not benefited from medical treatment, could recover under chiropractic care. Meade’s study, published in British Medical Journal, found chiropractic management superior to medical management for low back pain. Triano and colleagues showed chiropractic effective for chronic low back pain at a time when some still questioned whether its value was limited to acute cases, and a study by Bronfort and colleagues was among the first to demonstrate the value of combining spinal manipulation with trunk-strengthening exercises.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Identify the key findings of the Kirkaldy-Willis and Cassidy study on low back pain performed at the University of Saskatchewan and explain its importance.
  2. Identify the key conclusions of orthopedic surgeon Thomas Meade’s study on low back pain, published in British Medical Journal.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

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CL 3068 Defending Chiropractic 3: Debunking Myths and Comparing Results (1 CE Hour, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

Despite having been published in a major medical journal, a 1998 study by Croft and colleagues, which thoroughly debunked the claim that 90% of back pain patients recover in a short time regardless of whether they receive treatment, remains unknown to many health professionals. This course describes the study’s findings and explains their significance. It also identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the Cherkin et al study which concluded that neither chiropractic nor physical therapy yielded results sufficiently superior to reading an educational booklet. The more positive findings in two Australian studies comparing outcomes from chiropractic, acupuncture and medication are also presented.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Identify and explain the results from Croft et al study that investigated the accuracy of the claim that 90% of low back pain patients recover quickly with or without treatment.
  2. Explain the controversy surrounding the Cherkin et al study that compared the effectiveness of chiropractic lumbar adjustments, Mackenzie physiotherapy and reading an educational booklet.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

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CL 3069 Defending Chiropractic 4: Manual Methods Compared to Exercise, Medical Care, and PT (1 CE Hour, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

This course demonstrates the value of comparative effectiveness research by exploring a Norweigian study that compared exercise to manual therapy and found manual therapy more effective for chronic low back pain; the UK BEAM study that showed both manipulation and exercise added to the benefit of care by a medical physician, with manipulation having the strongest effect; a practice-based study by Haas and colleagues that showed benefits from chiropractic and medical care for low back pain but pointed to the challenges faced by both medical and chiropractic physicians in chronic cases; and another study by Haas’ group that was the first to rigorously study dose-response in chiropractic, thus addressing the longstanding question, “How many visits are needed?” along with studying whether adding physiotherapy modalities to manipulation improves outcomes.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Identify and describe the findings of the Aure et al study that compared two kinds of exercise to manual therapy.
  2. Identify unique aspects of the UK BEAM study and explain its importance.
  3. Describe the goals of a dose-response study.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

Register Here


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CL 3070 Defending Chiropractic 5: Preventing and Managing Chronic Low Back Pain (1 CE Hour, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

This course summarizes the comprehensive European Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Low Back Pain, with particular emphasis on prevention studies, to enable the student to apply what is known and to understand what currently remains unknown. Also discussed in this course are a head-to-head comparison in the British National Health Service between chiropractic and medical care for chronic low back pain; the first randomized trial on chiropractic care for adults 55 and older, which found two different chiropractic methods equally effective with both achieving outcomes superior to minimal medical care; and a study from Italy which found that spinal manipulation improves disability and pain levels more than back school or individualized physiotherapy.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Compare the amount of chiropractic-related research on treatment of low back pain to the amount on prevention.
  2. Identify treatment methods which the European Guidelines consider unsupported by research.
  3. Identify and describe the conclusions reached by Hondras et al in their study on low back pain in people over age 55.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

Register Here


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CL 3071 Defending Chiropractic 6: Applying Low Back Pain Guidelines (1 CE Hour, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

This course will familiarize students with the value of guidelines-based care (including spinal manipulation) for low back pain, and the extent to which usual care by medical physicians in many cases is guideline-discordant. Focusing first on the award-winning Spine Journal study by Bishop and colleagues, special attention is given to the role of opioids and passive care in medical practice, and to the effectiveness of guidelines-based care that includes chiropractic. This course also covers Senna and Machaly’s research in Egypt in which they extended manipulative treatment to include maintenance care, and an in-depth exploration of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters Low Back Pain Report and Recommendations.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Identify the areas in which Bishop et al found usual care by medical physicians to be guideline-discordant.
  2. Explain what conclusions can and cannot be drawn from Senna and Machaly’s study on maintenance care for low back pain.
  3. Identify the typical course of initial care (number of visits per week and number of weeks) for acute and chronic low back pain, according to the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

Register Here


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CL 3072 Defending Chiropractic 7: Spinal Manipulation for Sciatica (1 CE Hour, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

Students completing this course will understand the current research status of spinal manipulation for sciatic pain. Because research on low back plus leg pain is currently far less extensive than the body of research focused solely on low back pain, knowledge of the studies that do exist is essential for DCs. First, the course explores an early 1980s study by Nwuga in Nigeria, which for 20 years stood as the only research on manipulation for lumbar disc syndrome. In addition, the results and implications of two recent studies are discussed in detail, including the highly-praised Santilli et al study in Spine Journal, which found manipulation effective for acute disc pain, and the McMorland study, by a Canadian DC and three neurosurgeons, which found that 60% of patients studied were able to avoid surgery through chiropractic.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Identify the key conclusions in the Santilli et al study on the effectiveness of spinal manipulation for acute disc syndrome.
  2. Describe the strengths and weaknesses in the McMorland et al study on chiropractic care versus surgery for chronic disc-related low back and leg pain.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

Register Here


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CL 3073 Defending Chiropractic 8: Cost-Effectiveness of Spinal Manipulation for Low Back Pain (1 CE Hour, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

Course 8 gives students a wide-angle view on importance of cost-effectiveness data in contemporary health policy as well as identifying and describing key details of major cost-effectiveness studies related to spinal manipulation. Topics discussed include the goal of combining clinical effectiveness with moderate to low cost, the controversy surrounding the Quality Adjusted Life Year concept, and the challenges of analyzing cost-effectiveness data from different kinds of health care systems. Cost-effectiveness data from the large UK BEAM study is given special emphasis.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Explain why cost-effectiveness research is important to the chiropractic profession.
  2. Identify the components of high-value care.
  3. Explain the controversy surrounding the concept of Quality Adjusted Life Years.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

Register Here


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CL 3074 Defending Chiropractic 9: Cost-Effectiveness of Spinal Manipulation for Low Back Pain II (1 CE Hours, $25)

CE Hours - 1

Price - $25

Provider - UWS CE


Course Description

Course 9 continues the preceding course’s exploration of chiropractic-related cost-effectiveness data, delving into the major studies of the past decade so that students who complete the course will have attained up-to-date knowledge of the current status of cost-effectiveness research on chiropractic and other methods to which chiropractic is compared. The major studies include the U.S. Medicare Chiropractic Demonstration Project Report, the Liliedahl et al study that evaluated two years of low back pain data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Tennessee; and the Lin et al study that compared cost-effectiveness data on all methods deemed clinically effective for low back pain by the 2007 low back pain guidelines from the American College of Physicians and American Pain Society.


Course Goals

After completing this course, the learner should be able to:

  1. Identify the key reason that the Chiropractic Medicare Demonstration Project failed to show cost savings or cost neutrality.
  2. Identify and explain the findings of the Liliedahl study on low back pain data from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Tennessee.
  3. Compare and contrast the findings on cost effectiveness for spinal manipulation and medication in the Lin et al study that investigated all methods deemed clinically-effective by the American College of Physicians and American Pain Society guidelines.

Course Structure

  1. Lessons and Resources. The content in this course is broken down into navigable lessons with supporting PDFs or resource pages.
  2. Quiz. There is a brief quiz to assess your understanding of the course material. CE credit for the course is awarded upon successful completion of the quiz. You must score 80% on the quiz to receive the Certificate of Completion. The quiz may be retaken as necessary.
  3. Time. This system tracks the time you spend online in the course. As this is a 1-hour course, to be able to print your certificate, you must spend at least 85% of the CE hours actively engaged in the course.

Register Here


Need help logging into Provider site? - UWS CE Login Instructions